Introduction and Preface


I Persons, Property, and Legal Ordering


1 Conceptual and Historical Introduction


A. Legal Ordering

(a) Of the Absolute Rights of Individuals; Of Property in General

Sir William Blackstone

(b) Ancient Law

Sir Henry Sumner Maine


B. Case Study: Persons, Property, and Markets I (The Self, Dispossessed)

(c) R. v. Knowles, ex parte Somersett (The Somersett’s Case)

The U.K. Court of King’s Bench

(d) Excessive Memories: Slavery, Insurance and Resistance

Anita Rupprecht

(e) Dred Scott v. Sandford

The U.S. Supreme Court

(f) Gregson v. Gilbert

The U.K. Court of King’s Bench.

(g) The Slavery Abolition Act 1833

The U.K. Parliament


2 Legal Constructions of Persons and Property


A. Themes in Persons and Property

(a) The Nature of Legal Personality: Its History and Its Incidents

Margaret Davies and Ngaire Naffine

(b) The Personality of an Idol

P.W. Duff .

(c) Ram Jankijee Deities v. State of Bihar

Supreme Court of India (Civil Appellate Jurisdiction)

(d) Concepts of Property

Margaret Davies and Ngaire Naffine

(e) Making the Law Work for Everyone

Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor

(f) Private Right and Public Interest

Stephen Waddams


B. Case Study: Persons, Property, and Markets II (Property, Dispossessed)

(g) Shelley v. Kraemer

The U.S. Supreme Court.

(h) Noble et al. v. Alley

The Supreme Court of Canada.

(i) R. v. Quong-Wing

The Supreme Court of Canada

(j) Christie v. York Corp.

The Supreme Court of Canada.

II Of Property


3 Concept and Functions of a Property System

(a) The ‘Properties’ of Property

Bruce Ziff

(b) Property and the Right to Exclude

Thomas W. Merrill

(c) Yanner v. Eaton

High Court of Australia

(d) Co. v. Lojas Renner S.A.

Ontario Court of Appeal

(e) What Is Private Property?

Jeremy Waldron

(f) Property in the Commons

Lee Anne Fennell

(g) International News Service v. Associated Press

The U.S. Supreme Court


4 Private Property: Justifications and Scope

(a) The Case for Private Property

Bruce Ziff

(b) Edwards v. Sims

The Kentucky Court of Appeals

(c) Edwards v. Lee’s Administrator

The Kentucky Court of Appeals

(d) Discussion Problem

Editor’s Note

(e) Harrison v. Carswell

The Supreme Court of Canada

(f) Palmer v. Nova Scotia Forest Industries

The Nova Scotia Supreme Court.

(g) 114957 Canada Ltée (Spraytech, Société d’arrosage) v. Hudson (Town)

The Supreme Court of Canada.

(h) A Private Property Duty of Stewardship: Changing Our Land Ethic

James P. Karp

(i) The Functions of Modern Property Law

Bruce Ziff

III Of Persons


5 Corporations and Legal Personhood


A. Corporations: The Quintessential Economic Man

(a) Capacity of a Corporation

Canada Business Corporations Act

(b) Powers Vested in Corporations

Interpretation Act

(c) Salomon v. Salomon & Co., Ltd.; Salomon & Co., Ltd. v. Salomon

The U.K. House of Lords

(d) Early U.S. Cases Associated with Personification of the Corporation

Editor’s Note

(e) The Emergence of the Corporation as a Legal Unit and the Rise of Limited Corporation Liability

Phillip I. Blumberg

(f) The Personification of the Business Corporation in American Law

Gregory A. Mark.


B. Containing the Corporate Personality (or Not)

(g) Book Review on Merchant Kings

Lynda Grace Philippsen

(h) The Personification of Capital

Mark Neocleous

(i) Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission

The U.S. Supreme Court.

(j) Joint Resolution Referred J.R.S. 11

The State of Vermont.


6 Women and Legal Personhood


A. Women and the Private Sphere: Are Women Property?

(a) Of Husband and Wife

Sir William Blackstone

(b) Remarks by Susan B. Anthony in the Circuit Court of the United States for the Northern District of New York, 19 June 1873

Susan B. Anthony

(c) “The Virtual Slavery of Marriage”: The Common Law and Married Women

Lee Holcombe

(d) Married Women and the Law of Property in Victorian Ontario

Lori Chambers

(e) Ontario Family Law Act (Selected Sections)

(f) Valuing Women’s Work in the Home: A Defining Moment

Kim Brooks


B. Women and the Public Sphere: Are Women Persons?

(g) Bradwell v. State of Illinois

The U.S. Supreme Court

(h) ‘Persons,’ Pronouns, and Policy Choices: Judicial Reasoning in French and Langstaff

Mary Jane Mossman

(i) Edwards v. Canada (Attorney General)

The Supreme Court of Canada

(j) Edwards v. Canada (Attorney General)

The Privy Council


IV Of Persons Paternal


7 Capacity and Contingency of Legal Persons


A. Proprietor of Self

(a) Malette v. Shulman

The Ontario Court of Appeal

(b) Carter v. Canada (Attorney General)

The Supreme Court of British Columbia.

(c) Ontario Health Care Consent Act, 1996 (Selected Sections)


B. Pregnancy and the Legal Person

(d) Sex, Reproduction and the Self-Proprietor

Margaret Davies and Ngaire Naffine

(e) Disarticulating Liberal Subjectivities: Abortion and Fetal Protection

P. Lealle Ruhl


8 Partial Persons


A. Children and Medical Decision Making

(a) Ontario Skin Cancer Prevention Act (Tanning Beds)

(b) A.Y. (Re)

The Newfoundland Supreme Court — Unified Family Court

(c) C.K. v. Major-Cook

Ontario Superior Court of Justice

(d) A.C. v. Manitoba (Director of Child and Family Services)

The Supreme Court of Canada


B. Developmentally Disabled Persons and Sexuality

(e) E. (Mrs.) v. Eve

The Supreme Court of Canada.

(f) Re B (A Minor) (Wardship: Sterilisation)

The U.K. Court of Appeal, Civil Division

(g) Sex and the Sacred: Sterilization and Bodily Integrity in English and Canadian Law

Kristin Savell

(h) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006

The United Nations


V Of Markets: Exchange and the Person (Bodies)


9 The Body


A. The Mortal Body: Death and the Legal Person

(a) Personality and Property at the End of Life: The Will and the Corpse

Margaret Davies and Ngaire Naffine

(b) Abeziz v. Harris Estate

The Ontario Court of Justice — General Division.

(c) In the Matter of Gray

The Supreme Court of Queensland


B. The Immortal Body: Human Tissue and Body Parts

(d) R. v. Bentham (Appellant) (On Appeal from the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division))

The U.K. House of Lords

(e) Moore v. The Regents of the University of California

The Supreme Court of California

(f) Ontario Succession Law Reform Act (Selected Sections)

(g) Hecht v. Superior Court (Kane)

The Court of Appeal of California

(h) Yearworth v. North Bristol NHS Trust

The England and Wales Court of Appeal

(i) Kate Jane Bazley v. Wesley Monash IVF Pty Ltd

The Supreme Court of Queensland

(j) Batista v. Batista

The Supreme Court of New York, Nassau County


10 The Reproductive Body: New Life or New Property?


(a) In Re Baby M

The Supreme Court of New Jersey

(b) A.G.R. v. D.R.H. & S.H.

The Superior Court of New Jersey — Hudson County

(c) W.J.Q.M. v. A.M.A.

Saskatchewan Queen’s Bench

(d) Canada, Assisted Human Reproduction Act (Selected Sections)

(e) Fertile Ground: The Business of Baby-making

Sharon Kirkey

(f) Giving Away the “Gift of Life”: Surrogacy and the Canadian Assisted Human Reproduction Act

Rakhi Ruparelia

(g) Revisiting the Handmaid’s Tale: Feminist Theory Meets Empirical Research on Surrogate Mothers

Karen Busby and Delaney Vun.

(h) India’s Surrogate Mothers Face New Rules to Restrict ‘Pot of Gold’

Jason Burke


VI Of Markets: Exchange and Property (The Environment)


11 Nature, Persons, and Property I: A Problem in Common?


(a) The Promise of Economic Prosperity

Bruce Ziff

(b) See the World like Elinor Ostrom

Will Wilkinson

(c) Governing the Commons in the New Millennium: A Diversity of Institutions for Natural Resource Management

Harini Nagendra and Elinor Ostrom

(d) Promoting Environmental Sustainability and Addressing Climate Change

Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor

(e) Hickey et al. v. Electric Reduction Co. of Canada, Ltd.

The Newfoundland Supreme Court

(f) Images of Property in Canadian Law

Michael Mac Neil

(g) We Must All Be Stewards of Water: Simcoe County Aquifer Dispute Underscores the Need for a National Water Policy

Maude Barlow and Meera Karunananthan

(h) Our Water Commons: Toward a New Freshwater Narrative

Maude Barlow

(i) The Human Right to Water and Sanitation

UN Resolution


12 Nature, Persons, and Property II: A Natural Solution?


(a) Sierra Club v. Morton

The U.S. Supreme Court

(b) Should Trees Have Standing? — Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects

C.D. Stone

(c) Trees at Thirty-Five

Christopher Stone

(d) Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador (Excerpts).

(e) UN Declaration on Rights of Indigenous Persons

(f) Whanganui River Agreement Signed

Christopher Finlayson