Fishing and Farming Iconic Species
Cod and Salmon and Social Issues in Genomic Science

Keith Culver, Kieran O'Doherty   (Eds.)

Captus University Publications, ISBN 978-1-55322-298-9 (2014)
302 pages, 550 g, 7 X 10, $37.50 (US$30.00)

Salmon and cod are important to Canadians for more than economic and ecological reasons: they are charismatic icons of Canada's natural history and national development. Fishing and Farming Iconic Species: Cod and Salmon and Social Issues in Genomic Science is a multi-author, multidisciplinary book that explores how the capture, culture and conservation of salmon and cod are influenced by national and international environmental law, public consultation practices, intellectual property and knowledge transfer practices.


This collection of original articles explores the iconic status of salmon and cod in four areas of particular contemporary interest, arising from research initiated in Canadian salmon and cod genomics projects:


  • Environmental law and policy regarding capture fisheries and aquaculture and their interaction;
  • Intellectual property and knowledge management as increased knowledge of salmon and cod enables new practices and policies;
  • Public consultation and public perception;
  • Comparative perspectives putting Canadian practice into international perspective and contrasted with wheat, an iconic Canadian crop.


The contributors to this book span a range of disciplines, including biology, anthropology, law, philosophy, and political science. Canadian contributors represent both coasts and points in between, and international contributors from Norway and Scotland bring perspectives from neighbours facing opportunities and challenges remarkably similar to those found in Canada.

remarkably similar to those found in Canada.

Table of Contents   top


Keith Culver, Kieran O’Doherty.


PART 1: Fishing and Farming Iconic Species

• Salmon Farming and the First Nations on the West Coast: Some Lessons for Cod Farming on the East Coast

Omer Chouinard, Gilles Martin


• Issues Facing Fishing and Farming of Iconic Species (Cod and Salmon) in a Rapidly Evolving Management Landscape

Robert L. Stephenson


• Consultation and Integrated Coastal Management:The New Brunswick Aquaculture Site Allocation Policy

Melanie G. Wiber, Donna G. Curtis, Maria Recchia


• Post-Morton: Environmental Federalism and the Emergence of ‘New Governance’ in Finfish

Aquaculture in Canada

Neil Craik.


• Performing Salmon: The Contribution of Iconicity to the Failure of Network Governance in BC Salmon Aquaculture

Jeremy Rayner


PART 2: Intellectual Property and Knowledge Management

• A Fresh and Forward Looking Contribution to the National Icon Debate: The Interface Between Patents, Human Rights and Competition

Abbe E. L. Brown.

• Canadian Patent Law Related to Marker-Assisted Breeding

Norman Siebrasse


• Patent Protection for Inventions Related to Farmed Fish in Norway and the EPO

Morten Walløe Tvedt


• Norwegian Salmon Farming: Regulating the Use of an Iconic Species

Bjørn K. Myskja


• Innovation and Iconic Species: A Role for Knowledge Management

David Castle


PART 3: Public Consultation and Perception

• Representing the Cultural Significance of Salmon in a West Coast Public Deliberation

Michael M. Burgess, Holly Longstaff


• Assessing Moral Perspectives on the Technical Application of a Fish’s DNA: An Interview Study with Salmon Genomic Researchers

David M. Secko, Michael M. Burgess


• Perceptions of Salmon Genomics Among Chinese-Canadians and Indo-Candaians in Metro Vancouver

Emma Cohen, Kieran O’Doherty


• Using Deliberative Democracy to Inform Policy on Applications Arising from Salmon Genomics Research

Kieran O’Doherty, Holly Longstaff, Mike Burgess


Epilogue: Comparative Perspectives

• “Give Us This Day Our Daily Bread” — The Iconic Role of Wheat in the Modern World

Peter W.B. Phillips




Instructor Resources   top

Related Resources   top

About the Author   top

Abbe Brown

Dr Abbe Brown is a Senior Lecturer and Deputy Head of the School of Law at the University of Aberdeen. She joined Aberdeen in 2012 after spending 6 years at a Lecturer in Information Technology Law at the University of Edinburgh, where she was an Associate of the SCRIPT/AHRC Research Centre for Intellectual Property and Technology Law. Before returning to academia, she practiced law in London, Melbourne and Edinburgh. Abbe’s research explores the interaction between legal fields, with a strong interest in enabling access to innovation and creativity. Key publications are the monograph “Intellectual Property, Human Rights and Competition: Access to Essential Innovation and Technology” (Edward Elgar, 2012) and the edited collection “Environmental Technologies, Intellectual Property and Climate Change: Accessing, Obtaining and Protecting” (Edward Elgar, 2013).


Michael Burgess

Professor and Chair in Biomedical Ethics at the W. Maurice Young Centre for Applied Ethics in the School of Population and Public Health and the Department of Medical Genetics and in the Southern Medical Program at the University of British Columbia. His research develops public engagement based on theories of deliberative democracy, largely in biobanks and health policy but also in salmon genomics, environmental remediation and biofuels. Burgess has collaborated on deliberative public engagement in Vancouver, Montreal, the Mayo Clinic (Minnesota), California, Western Australia and Tasmania. The analysis of deliberative engagements has supported the development of models of dynamic, participatory governance for biobanks and epidemiological research. He is working with indigenous and community-based groups related to biobanks and preventive health, with health economists on priorities in health care funding, and on the appropriate implementation of personalized medicine into the health care system.


David Castle

David Castle is Professor and Chair of Innovation in the Life Sciences at the University of Edinburgh. He held the Canada Research in Science and Society at the University of Ottawa and before was Associate Professor at the University of Guelph. His research, funded by agencies in Canada and the UK, focuses on social aspects of life science innovation including democratic engagement, regulation and governance, and intellectual property and knowledge management. He has published extensively on the social dimensions of science, technology and innovation, has held several major research awards, and has considerable experience leading strategic research initiatives and research project management. Prof. Castle has consulted widely to government and industry on issues such as the impact of national technology transfer policies and programs, intellectual property and knowledge management strategies, and the role of non-scientific considerations in the regulation of science and technology.


Omer Chouinard

Professor of Sociology, Université de Moncton. Omer Chouinard is involved in the Programme in Environmental Studies at l’Université de Moncton. He is Principal Investigator on a project entitled: “Integrated Management on Coastal Communities and Aquaculture in the Gulf of St. Lawrence” (2006–10) and Co-researcher on many projects : Costal Communities Challenges Community-Research Alliance (CCC-CURA : 2010–15); Performance of coop’s sector on social, economic and environment across Canada (Coop-CURA : 2010–15) Territorial and Development and Cooperation (2007–12) with (UQAR); “Mobilization on Natural Resources and quality of life” (2005–11) in “Social Economy and Sustainability” all financed by SSHRC; in a CIDA Project for “Ecosystem Management based on Communities in Burkina Faso” (2005–11); he was also appointed by Canadian Government to the Fisheries Resources Conservation Council (2007–10).


Emma Cohen

Emma has been working as the Knowledge Translation and Communications Manager for the Canadian Institutes of Health Research-Institute of Population and Public Health (CIHR-IPPH) since May 2009. She is responsible for the development and implementation of the Institute’s knowledge translation and communications strategies. She is also responsible for conceiving, planning, and coordinating knowledge translation and communications initiatives that align with the Institute’s strategic research priorities.


Neil Craik

Neil Craik is Associate Professor of Law and the Director of the School of Environment, Enterprise and Development (SEED) at the University of Waterloo. He is cross-appointed to the Balsillie School of International Affairs. His current research focus is on transnational environmental law and governance, with a particular focus on procedural aspects of law. Professor Craik’s publications include Climate Change Policy in North America: Designing Integration in a Regional System (with Studer and VanNijntten, University of Toronto Press, 2013) and The International Law of Environmental Impact Assessment: Process, Substance and Integration (Cambridge University Press, 2008).


Keith Culver

Professor of Management and Director, Okanagan Sustainability Institute, University of British Columbia. Culver has also held the Econoving International Chair in Generating Eco-Innovation, Universud Paris and University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France, and was Professor of Philosophy and Director, Centre for Social Innovation Research, at the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton. His interests lie at the intersection of jurisprudence, policy, management and technology for sustainability. Relevant recent publications in the area of law, policy and technology include: Keith Culver and Michael Giudice, Legality’s Borders (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) Keith Culver and David Castle, eds., Aquaculture, Innovation and Social Transformation (Springer, 2008). Culver has served as Chair of the Research Management Committee of AquaNet, the Network of Centres of

Excellence in Aquaculture, and was co-investigator and GE3LS principal investigator of the Cod Genome Project.


Donna Curtis

Donna G. Curtis is an Interdisciplinary PhD student in Sociology, Anthropology and Environmental Management studying at the University of New Brunswick. Donna’s central area of study focuses on the impact of local ecological knowledge in comparison to scientific knowledge/ information, and how these are accessed and applied in public policy responses and decision making in relation to integrated management of coastal communities. Her current work involves the often spatially competing coastal industries of traditional capture fisheries and aquaculture in the Canadian Maritime Provinces. Donna holds a Master’s in Library and Information Science and an MSc in Environmental Management. Since 1994 Donna has worked in a variety of positions as an information specialist in the subject area of life sciences, aquaculture and fisheries. From 2008–2012 Donna participated as a graduate student in the Coastal Community University Research Network.


Holly Longstaff

Partner at Engage Associates Consulting Group in Vancouver BC. She specializes in applied ethics and policy analysis from a social science perspective and has over 10 years’ experience in this field. Her PhD research was funded by awards from the CIHR Ethics of Health Research and Policy Training Project through the W. Maurice Young Centre for Applied Ethics at the University of British Columbia and by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research’s Institute of Genetics Doctoral Research Award.


Gilles Martin

Gilles Martin is a teacher at the Community College in New Brunswick. He has a master’s in environmental studies and has participated in numerous research projects with coastal communities of New Brunswick as professional researcher with Professor Omer Chouinard of the Université de Moncton. Their research focuses on sustainable community approaches to coastal erosion, climate change adaptation, and sustainable resource use. More specifically, their research has proposed a community engagement process and has examined development of local empowerment towards adaptation following severe storms in the Atlantic Provinces.


Bjørn K. Myskja

Professor of ethics and political philosophy, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). Main research areas include theoretical ethics, aesthetics, bioethics and ethics of technology, with particular focus on issues related to trust and technology. He participates in several interdisciplinary research projects in the fields of biotechnology, nanotechnology, systems biology and food ethics, funded by the Research Council of Norway. Myskja is a member of the Norwegian Biotechnology Advisory Board.


Kieran O’Doherty

Kieran O’Doherty is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, where he convenes the Discourse, Science, & Publics research group. He has published on such diverse topics as public deliberation, genetic risk, the communication of uncertainty, human tissue biobanks, salmon genomics, and social and ethical implications of human microbiome research. Other areas of research and interests include health psychology, theoretical psychology, and the development and applications of qualitative research methods. Recent publications include the co-edited volume Public Engagement and Emerging Technologies published by UBC Press.


Peter W.B. Phillips

Dr. Peter W.B. Phillips, an international political economist, is Professor of Public Policy in the Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy at the University of Saskatchewan. He undertakes research on governing innovation, including regulation and policy, innovation systems, intellectual property, supply chain management and trade policy. He is co-lead of a $5.4 million Genome Canada project entitled Value Addition through Genomics and GE3LS (VALGEN) which runs 2009–13. His latest book, Governing Transformative Technological Innovation, was published by Elgar in 2007.


Jeremy Rayner

Jeremy Rayner is Professor and Centennial Research Chair in the Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy at the University of Saskatchewan. His research interests are in the areas of resource and environmental policy, energy policy, public engagement and science policy. He has served as Chair of the Global Forest Expert Panel on international forest governance and has recently been principal investigator on projects researching the implementation of integrated land management in western Canada and sustainable energy transitions in his home province of Saskatchewan. He is a co-author of In Search of Sustainability: BC Forest Policy in the 1990s and is the author of numerous articles on regulation and governance for the sustainable use of resources. He holds a PhD in Political Science from the University of British Columbia.


Maria Recchia

Maria Recchia is Executive Director of the Fundy North Fishermen’s Association. She has a Bachelor’s degree in Marine Biology from Connecticut College, and a Masters of Environmental Studies from Dalhousie University, where her thesis focused on the lobster fishery of Grand Manan. She has worked in the marine biology labs of the New England Aquarium in Boston and La Stazione Zoologica in Naples Italy. She has also worked with The Quebec Labrador Foundation based in Ipswich Massachusetts, The Gloucester Fishermen’s Wives Association, St. Francis Xavier University Extension Department, the Bay of Fundy Fisheries Council, and Coastal Livelihoods Trust. She has worked with fishermen in the Bay of Fundy for the last 15 years and was a community partner in the Coastal Community University Research Alliance (2006–2012), where she participated in studies on conflicting uses of ocean space in Saint John Harbour and in Southwest New Brunswick. In collaboration with Coastal CURA partners, she has published several articles on ocean and coastal integrated management.


David Secko

Dr. David Secko is an Associate Professor in the Department of Journalism at Concordia University (Montreal). Secko’s background cuts across microbiology, journalism and applied ethics. His amazement at the speed at which an amoeba could crawl, led him to a Ph.D. (2004) from the University of British Columbia that focused on the soil amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. However, upon finishing his PhD, he started writing about science for the likes of The Scientist magazine and Vancouver’s Tyee. Now at Concordia University, Secko is the leader of the Concordia Science Journalism Project ( and active in the Canadian GE3LS community. He won a University Research Award for his research contributions in 2011, the Dean’s Award for excellence as a new scholar in 2010 and was awarded the Hal Straight Gold Medal in Journalism from UBC’s School of Journalism in 2006. Secko’s research links across journalism, science and ethical issues to clarify and experiment with the roles of the public, experts and journalists in the democratic governance of biotechnology. Examples of his recent articles include a qualitative meta synthesis of the experiences of a science journalists (Science Communication 34, 2: 241–282) and a narrative analysis of online commentary after science stories (Journalism 12, 7: 814–31).


Norman Siebrasse

Norman Siebrasse is a Professor of Law at the University of New Brunswick. He received his BSc in Engineering Physics and his LLB from Queen’s University, before clerking at the Supreme Court of Canada for the Honourable Madam Justice McLachlin during the 1991–1992 term. After receiving an LLM from the University of Chicago, he joined the University of New Brunswick Faculty of Law in 1993. He teaches intellectual property law, commercial law and remedies, and his research focuses on patent law.


Robert Stephenson

Dr. Robert Stephenson has been a research scientist with the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) St. Andrews Biological Station since 1984, and is currently Visiting Research Professor at the University of New Brunswick. He is Principal Investigator of the Canadian Fisheries Research Network — an NSERC-funded network that is linking academics, industry and government in collaborative fisheries research across Canada. Stephenson has worked extensively on the ecology, assessment, and management of Atlantic herring, and more broadly on issues related to fisheries resource evaluation and Fisheries Management Science. Current research interests include fisheries ecology and management, development of integrated coastal zone management, implementation of the ecosystem approach (particularly in fisheries and aquaculture), and development of policies and strategies for sustainability of marine activities.


Morten Walløe Tvedt

Senior Research Fellow in the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway. He research interests reach across several related areas: regulation and policy regarding Animal and Marine Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Rights; international regulation of intellectual property rights, e.g. patents and plant variety rights (WIPO and WTO/TRIPS); regulation of property rights to genetic resources and genetic material international Regulating and National Implementation of Benefit Sharing Arising from use of Genetic Resources (CBD and FAO). He has co-authored the monograph Beyond Access, with Tomme Young. He has published a number of articles in such journals as the Journal of Environmental Policy and Law, the Journal of World Intellectual Property, Aquaculture, and Animal Genetic Resources information. He is currently engaged in various capacity building projects for the implementation of Access and Benefit Sharing under the CBD.


Melanie Wiber

Melanie G. Wiber is Professor of Anthropology at the University of New Brunswick, New Brunswick, Canada. She is author of 47 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters. She has published two single authored books: Politics, Property and Law in the Philippine Uplands (1993 Wilfrid Laurier University Press), and Erect Men/Undulating Women: The Visual Imagery of Gender, Race and Progress in Reconstructive Illustrations of Human Evolution (1997 Wilfrid Laurier University Press). She is co-editor with Joep Spiertz of The Role of Law in Natural Resource Management (1996 Vuga Press) and with Franz and Keebet von Benda-Beckmann of The Changing Properties of Property (2006 Berghan). For the past 25 years she has focused on natural resource management, including research on irrigation, farming and fisheries. She was co-applicant and served for six years on the management board for the Coastal Community University Research Alliance (see Currently, she is conducting research as part of the Canadian Fisheries Research Network (see, where she and other participants are compiling a suite of sustainability indicators for Canada’s commercial fisheries. She has served for many years on the Executive Body of the international Commission on Legal Pluralism and is currently Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Legal Pluralism.